Caffeine is a naturally occurring compound found in certain plants and crops –cocoa, tea and (of course) coffee. All coffee plants, and thus all coffee beans, contain naturally occurring caffeine. Thus, decaf coffee is actually a process, performed before roasting, by which the majority of the caffeine is removed.
Decaffeination processes use water or stream, as the caffeine molecules are water soluble. However, the process has to be quick and efficient enough to extract the caffeine, but also limit the loss of the flavor molecules.
Some processes have produced better tasting (i.e. less flavor loss) than others;
There are 4 main USDA approved methods for decaffeination: Methylene Chloride (Traditional), Activated Charcoal (Swiss Water), Super Critical Carbon Dioxide (CO2), and Ethyl Acetate (Natural).
Methylene Chloride (“Traditional”) is the oldest and most common method. Likely 80-90% of all decaffeinated coffee is handled this way, including ours. This process, done in Germany, uses both water and MC to bond quickly with the caffeine molecule – thereby limiting the loss of flavor. This process consistently produces the best tasting decaffeinated coffees.
Charcoal Filtration (“Swiss Water”) is the second most common type of decaffeination, accounts for about 10% of decaffeinated coffee, and is often used for Organic Coffee decaffeination. This process, done in Canada, uses flavor charged water and charcoal filtration to extract the caffeine molecules. Although a more expensive process, this has been a consistent and reliable source for all our Organic Decaf offerings.
Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (“CO2”) & Ethyl Acetate (“Natural”) are both used in limited capacities. CO2, done in the USA and elsewhere, and Ethyl Acetate, done mostly in Mexico, are often referred to as “Natural” processes because the elements are naturally occurring in the environment. However, the quantity and concentrations needed require synthetic or manufactured versions. These are relatively new decaffeination methods.
We use the best tasting coffees available from all decaffeination methods, but primarily we use the Swiss Water process for our Organics and the Traditional process for most other coffees. We occasionally use the CO2 and Natural methods as well.
Important Fact: Decaffeination does not mean “caffeine-free”! The USDA requires coffee sold as “Decaf” to have at least 97% of the original caffeine content removed. Thus, “Decaf Coffee” can have up to 3% of its’ original caffeine content.